A number of substances have been identified and grouped together under this heading.

  1. Thiamin : Also known as vitamin B1 is soluble in water and is readily broken down by heat in neutral or alkaline solutions. The basic function of thiamin is related to release of energy from glucose and its storage as fat, thus it makes energy available for normal growth and function of the body. Thiamin is needed to maintain normal function of three systems in the body
  2. Gastrointestinal System
  3. Nervous System
  4. Cardiovascular System
  5. Riboflavin : It is a more heat-stable factor and is less soluble in water than thiamin and more stable to heat, especially in acid solutions. Riboflavin is destroyed on exposure to sunlight. It is essential for tissue health and growth of all plant and animal life . It plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of mucocutaneous structures.
  6. Niacin : Niacin includes both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, is another vitamin of the B-complex group. Niacin works in close association with riboflavin and thiamin in the cell metabolism system that produces energy. It is necessary for growth .
  7. Pyridoxine : It also known as vitamin B6 which is a co-factor of several enzymes connected with the metabolism of amino acids. It is believed to have a role in the formation of antibodies.
  8. Folic Acid : It is soluble in alkaline or acid solution: but is reasonably stable in neutral or alkaline solution, especially in the absence of air.
  9. Cyanocobalamin : Also known as Vitamin B12 is considered the most potent vitamin. It promotes normal growth and development. It helps with certain type of nerve damage, and treats anaemia. It is not stable to heat and light.
  10. Ascorbic Acid : Commonly known as Vitamin C closely resembles to glucose in structure. It performs a number of important functions in the body. It plays and important role to build and maintain strong tissues in general, especially connective tissues (bone, cartilage, dentin, collagen, etc) It is also an important partner of protein for tissue synthesis.